I.Jupiter from "Roman Antiquities, and Ancient Mythology" by Charles K. Dillaway
II.Jupiter from "Myths and Legends of Ancient Greece and Rome" by E.M. Berens
Jupiter, the supreme god of the Pagans, though set forth by historians as the wisest of princes, is described by his worshippers as infamous for his vices. There were many who assumed the name of Jupiter; the most considerable, however, and to whom the actions of the others are ascribed, was the Jupiter of Crete, son to Saturn and Rhea, who is differently said to have had his origin in Crete, at Thebes in Bœotia, and among the Messenians.
His first warlike exploit, and, indeed, the most memorable of his actions, was his expedition against the Titans, to deliver his parents, who had been imprisoned by these princes, because Saturn, instead of observing an oath he had sworn, to destroy his male children, permitted his son Jupiter, by a stratagem of Rhea, to be educated. Jupiter, for this purpose, raised a gallant army of Cretans, and engaged the Cecrŏpes as auxiliaries in this expedition; but these, after taking his money, having refused their services, he changed into apes. The valor of Jupiter so animated the Cretans, that by their aid he overcame the Titans, released his parents, and, the better to secure the reign of his father, made all the gods swear fealty to him upon an altar, which has since gained a place among the stars.
This exploit of Jupiter, however, created jealousy in Saturn, who, having learnt from an oracle, that he should be dethroned by one of his sons, secretly meditated the destruction of Jupiter as the most formidable of them. The design of Saturn being discovered by one of his council, Jupiter became the aggressor, deposed his father, threw him into Tartarus, ascended the throne, and was acknowledged as supreme by the rest of the gods.
The reign of Jupiter being less favorable to his subjects than that of Saturn, gave occasion to the name of the silver age, by which is meant an age inferior in happiness to that which preceded, though superior to those which followed.
The distinguishing character of his person is majesty, and every thing about him carries dignity and authority with it; his look is meant to strike sometimes with terror, and sometimes with gratitude, but always with respect. The Capitoline Jupiter, or the Jupiter Optimus Maximus, (him now spoken of,) was the great guardian of the Romans, and was represented, in his chief temple, on the Capitoline hill, as sitting on a curule chair, with the lightning in his right hand, and a sceptre in his left.
The poets describe him as standing amidst his rapid horses, or his horses that make the thunder; for as the ancients had a strange idea of the brazen vault of heaven, they seem to have attributed the noise in a thunder storm to the rattling of Jupiter's chariot and horses on that great arch of brass all over their heads, as they supposed that he himself flung the flames out of his hand, which dart at the same time out of the clouds, beneath this arch.
The Roman Jupiter, who is so frequently confounded with the Greek Zeus, is identical with him only as being the head of the Olympic gods, and the presiding deity over Life, Light, and Aërial Phenomena. Jupiter is lord of life in its widest and most comprehensive signification, having absolute power over life and death, in which respect he differed from the Greek Zeus, who was to a certain extent controlled by the all-potent sway of the Moiræ or Fates. Zeus, as we have seen, often condescends to visit mankind, either as a mortal, or under various disguises, whereas Jupiter always remains essentially the supreme god of heaven, and never appears upon earth.
The most celebrated temple of Jupiter was that on the Capitoline Hill in the city of Rome, where he was worshipped under the names of Jupiter-Optimus-Maximus, Capitolinus, and Tarpeius.
The Romans represented him seated on a throne of ivory, holding in his right hand a sheaf of thunderbolts, and in his left a sceptre, whilst an eagle stands beside his throne.